Face Presentation (labor and delivery)

The term face presentation refers to the part of the baby that leads the way through the mother’s birth canal. In a face presentation, the fetal head and neck are hyperextended, causing the occiput to come in contact with the upper back of the fetus while lying in a longitudinal axis. The presenting portion of […]

Biophysical Profile (prenatal period)

A biophysical profile (BPP) test measures the health of the baby during pregnancy. A BPP test may include a nonstress test with electronic fetal heart monitoring and a fetal ultrasound. The BPP measures the baby’s heart rate, muscle tone, movement, breathing, and the amount of amniotic fluid around the baby.  A BPP is commonly done […]

Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (prenatal period)

Twin to Twin Transfusion Syndrome (commonly referred to as “TTTS”) is a condition which can occur in an identical twin pregnancy that is monochorionic/diamniotic. In almost all of these pregnancies, the single placenta contains blood vessel connections between the twins. In approximately 20% of monochorionic/diamniotic twins, the blood flow through these blood vessel connections becomes […]

Oligohydramnios (prenatal period)

Oligohydramnios is a condition which occurs when there is a decreased amount of fluid in the amniotic sac. This condition is most often seen in the third trimester, and affects less than 10% of pregnancies.

Polyhydramnios (prenatal period)

Polyhydramnios is a term used to signify that there is an excess amount of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac. Amniotic fluid is important to the health and development of the fetus. The fetus regulates the amount of the amniotic fluid by swallowing the fluid, passing it through the kidneys, and excreting it as urine.

Amniotic Fluid (prenatal period)

Amniotic fluid is the term that describes the fluid surrounding the uterus. Amniotic fluid is produced through fetal urination. A sufficient amount of fluid must surround the fetus for proper protection and growth. The amniotic fluid helps the lungs to properly develop, and permits movement within the womb, allowing for good bone growth. The amniotic […]

Eclampsia (prenatal period)

Eclampsia is diagnosed when a pregnant woman has tonic-clonic seizures along with high blood pressure and proteinuria. This serious complication of pregnancy may lead to the development of swelling in the brain or coma. Eclampsia may lead to premature labor, convulsions, or in rare cases, fatality.

Pre-eclampsia (prenatal period)

Preeclampsia occurs when a pregnant mother’s blood pressure is greater than 140/90 with “proteinuria” (excess protein in the urine). Preeclampsia is considered severe when the blood pressure is greater than 160/110, and the mother is exhibiting other signs and symptoms. Preeclampsia is most often seen after 37 weeks of pregnancy, but it can occur anytime […]

Gestational Hypertension (prenatal period)

Gestational hypertension is elevated blood pressure as a result of pregnancy. This condition is determined to be present when a pregnant woman has a blood pressure higher than 140/90 without the presence of protein in her urine and which occurs after 20 weeks of pregnancy. This condition is often the result of the body not […]

Placental abruption (prenatal period)

Placental abruption occurs when the placenta peels away from the inner wall of the uterus before delivery, either partially or completely. Placental abruption can deprive the baby of oxygen and nutrients and cause heavy bleeding in the mother.