Intra-Cranial Hemorrhage (antenatal period)

An intra-cranial hemorrhage is bleeding in the brain which is caused by the rupture of a blood vessel within the skull. In an infant, intracranial hemorrhage may be the result of deformity of the skull bones during delivery, or from a lack of oxygen. An intracranial hemorrhage, if left untreated, can damage to areas of […]

Shoulder dystocia (antenatal period)

Shoulder dystocia is a specific case of dystocia whereby after the delivery of the head, the anterior shoulder of the infant cannot pass below the pubic symphysis, or requires significant manipulation to pass below the pubic symphysis. It is diagnosed when the shoulders fail to deliver shortly after the fetal head. In shoulder dystocia, it […]

Brachial plexus (antenatal period)

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves that conducts signals from the spinal cord, which is housed in the spinal canal of the vertebral column (or spine), to the shoulder, arm and hand. These nerves originate in the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth cervical (C5-C8), and first thoracic (T1) spinal nerves, and innervate the […]

Multi-Cystic Encephalomalacia (antenatal period)

Multicystic encephalomalacia is a diffuse lesion involving the brain parenchyma in the perinatal period. The most common causative factor that is implicated in the pathogenesis of this condition is severe hypoxia causing ischemic insult and subsequent cerebral necrosis.

Spastic quadriplegia (antenatal period)

Spastic quadriplegia occurs in patients with the most severe form of Cerebral Palsy. Spastic quadriplegia causes marked motor impairment of all four limbs. Patients with this condition may also have dysfunction of the muscles of the mouth and tongue.

Cerebral Palsy (antenatal period)

Cerebral palsy is a term used to describe a disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture that is caused by injury or abnormal development in the immature brain. Signs and symptoms appear during infancy or preschool years. Patients with cerebral palsy often have impaired movement which is associated with exaggerated reflexes and/or rigidity of the […]

Amniotic Fluid Embolism (antenatal period)

Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is an obstetric emergency in which amniotic fluid, fetal cells, hair, or other debris enters the mother’s blood stream via the placental bed of the uterus and trigger an allergic reaction. This reaction then results in cardiorespiratory (heart and lung) collapse and coagulopathy.

Post-Partum Maternal Hemorrhage (antenatal period)

Post-Partum Hemorrhage (PPH) occurs when a new mother has vaginal bleeding in excess of 500 ml within 24 hours after delivery. Severe PPH occurs when the blood loss exceeds 1,000 ml. When mothers become severely anemic after giving birth, they are at risk for suffering from hypovolemic shock before they have lost 500 ml of […]

Intraparenchymal Hemorrhage (antenatal period)

This type of hemorrhage occurs when there is bleeding into the brain tissue itself.

Subdural Hemorrhage (antenatal period)

This type of hemorrhage occurs between the outer and the inner layers of brain covering. A subdural hemorrhage can put increased pressure on the surface of the brain.